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Foundations and Challenges of Low-Inertia Systems

The electric power system is currently undergoing a period of unprecedented changes. Environmental and sustainabil- ity concerns lead to replace a significant share of conventional fos- sil fuel-based power plants with renewable energy resources. This transition involve the major challenge of substituting synchronous machines and their well-known dynamics and controllers for power electronics-interfaced generation whose regulation and interaction with the rest of the system is yet to be fully understood. In this article, we review the challenges of such low-inertia power systems, and survey the solutions that have been put forward thus far. We strive to concisely summarize the laid-out scientific foundations as well as the practical experiences of industrial and academic demonstration projects. We touch upon the topics of power system stability, modeling, and control, and we particularly focus on the role of frequency, inertia, as well as control of power converters.

Author(s):

Federico Milano    
University College Dublin
Ireland

Florian Dörfler    
ETH Zürich
Switzerland

Gabriela Hug    
ETH Zürich
Switzerland

David Hill    
Univ. of Sydney and Univ. of Hong Kong
Australia

Gregor Verbic    
Univ. of Sydney
Australia

 

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