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Study of Resonance Issues between HVDC link and Power System Components using EMT Simulations

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) systems based on voltage source converters (VSCs) are increasingly popular in electric power grids [1]. Several HVDC-VSC projects are currently planned or operated by RTE (French TSO). In general, such devices are embedded in a meshed AC network including other power electronics devices such as wind farms and FACTS. This is a relatively new aspect and such devices may have abnormal resonance interaction.
A controlled power electronic converter can cause instabilities when interacting with other equipment in a power system. Depending on the control system dynamics, instability or resonance can occur in a wide range of frequencies (up to few kHz). Low and high frequency resonances have been noted in several power electronics based projects: in the Borwin 1 project, a HVDC link connected to a wind farm has registered high frequency resonances [4]. Instability with converters of a photovoltaic plant is presented in [5]. Interaction studies between HVDC and AC network configuration are reported in [3]. Problems due to negative resistive behavior of converters connected to a grid in traction applications can be found in [6]. In [7] low frequency oscillations are noted between power electronic devices and power system equipment.
In order to analysis and prevent such negative effects, several tools are used as: analytical, linearized model or electromagnetic transient (EMT)-type model. This paper focuses on the EMT-type model because it allows to account for detailed and/or black-box model and more realistic network configuration. The derivation of the frequency response based on EMT-type model is presented. Such tool is useful to detect and analysis interaction occurring in a complex network.
In this paper, two types of control instability issues is illustrated using this frequency response approach: sub-synchronous interaction and harmonic resonances. Therefore, several realistic EMT test cases including interaction between HVDC, other power electronic devices and synchronous machine are presented and analysed.

[1] B. Gemmell, J. Dorn, D. Retzmann, and D. Soerangr, “Prospects of Multilevel VSC Technologies for Power Transmission,” in Proc. IEEE Transmission and Distribution Conf. Exp., Milpitas, CA, Apr. 2008, pp. 1-16
[2] A. Lesnicar, and R. Marquardt, “An Innovative Modular Multilevel Converter Topology Suitable for a Wide Power Range,” in Proc. IEEE Power Tech. Conference, vol. 3, Bologna, Jun. 2003.
[3] H. Saad; Y. Fillion; S. Deschanvres; Y. Vernay; S. Dennetiere, "On Resonances and Harmonics in HVDC-MMC Station Connected to AC grid," in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery , vol.PP, no.99, pp.1-1
[4] C Buchhagen, C Rauscher, A Menze and J Jung, TenneT, “Borwin1 – First Experiences with harmonic interactions in converter dominated grids”, Int’l ETG Congress 2015, Nov. 17-18, 2015, Bonn, Germany, VDE Conference
[5] J. Sun, "Impedance-Based Stability Criterion for Grid-Connected Inverters," in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 3075-3078, Nov. 2011
[6] E. Möllerstedt and B. Bernhardsson, “Out of control because of harmonics—An analysis of the harmonic response of an inverter locomotive,” IEEE Control Syst. Mag., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 70–81, Aug. 2000
[7] G. D. Irwin, A. Isaacs and D. Woodford, "Simulation requirements for analysis and mitigation of SSCI phenomena in wind farms," Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T&D), 2012 IEEE PES, Orlando, FL, 2012, pp. 1-4


Hani Saad    
RTE (Réseau de Transport d'Electricité)

Albane Schwob    
RTE (Réseau de Transport d'Electricité)


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