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Allocation of Frequency Control Reserve from Aggregated Resources of Active Distribution Systems

The paradigm shift in power systems towards expansion of renewable generation is leading to a growing amount of fluctuating generation and an increasing demand for frequency control services (FCSs) [1]. Hence, supplementary FCSs providers are required to ensure a smooth realization of this transition [2]. The emerging smart distribution grids are enabling new automated control strategies for managing distributed generators (DGs), energy storage systems (ESSs), and flexible loads (FLs) [3]. This potential capability of active distribution networks (ADNs) makes them as suitable choice for provision of FCSs in the next generation of electric power systems. In this context, this paper addresses the allocation of FCSs form aggregated resources of active distribution systems (ARADS) for balancing the transmission system while considering line/generation outages as well as forecast error of loads and generations (scenarios). To the best knowledge of the authors this problem has not been reported in the literature.
The mathematical formulation of the optimization problem addressed in this paper is linear. It is solved thanks to scenario-based stochastic optimization. In this regard, first the paper introduces a generic framework for modeling the ARADS including ESSs, DGs as well as FLs as seen from the transmission system operator (TSO) perspective. FCSs resources of an ARADS are categorized into P-constrained and P&E-constrained sets. P-constrained FCSs resources are restricted only by the active power capacity, while the P&E-constrained FCSs resources are restricted by both active power and energy capacities. Afterwards, based on the proposed modeling framework and relying on a DC power flow model, the optimization problem formulation consists on minimizing the cost of FCSs provision and deployment from all possible providers including not only ARADS, but also classical ones as GENCOs, while considering credible scenarios. Nodal and total Expected Load Not Served (ELNS) indices are used to measure the security of the transmission system against the examined scenarios. These indices along with all technical limits of the transmission system, GENCOs, and ARADS are involved in the mathematical constraints of the problem. The main decision variables of the optimization problem are the capacities of GENCOs and particularly ARADS to provide FCSs. Finally, the WSCC 9-bus test system is considered as a case study to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

REFERENCES
[1] Y. G. Rebours, D. S. Kirschen, M. Trotignon, and S. Rossignol, “A survey of frequency and voltage control ancillary services—Part II: Economic features,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 358-366, Feb. 2007.
[2] M. Gallus, S. Koch, and G. Andersson, “Provision of load frequency control by PHEVs, controllable loads, and a co-generation unit,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 4568-4582, Oct. 2011.
[3] V. C. Gungor, D. Sahin, T. Koçak, S. Ergüt, C. Buccella, C. Cecati, and G. P. Hancke, “Smart grid technologies: Communication technologies and standards,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 529–539, Nov. 2011.

Author(s):

Mohsen Kalantar Neyestanaki    
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)
Switzerland

Mokhtar Bozorg    
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)
Switzerland

Fabrizio Sossan    
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)
Switzerland

Rachid Cherkaoui    
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)
Switzerland

 

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