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Optimal Tap-Operations of a Regulated Distribution Transformer Considering Conservation Voltage Reduction Effects in Active Low-Voltage Grids

In this paper we investigate the impact of distributed power generation (DG) on optimal switching times for a regulated distribution transformer (RDT), considering voltage-dependent load characteristics. To obtain optimal switching times over the course of a day, a Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) of time series is performed. Residential modelling is based on a stochastic Bottom-Up load model which considers the Duty Cycle Rebound Effect (DCR) explicitly. In contrast to existing research we take the time-dependent component of the load into account that makes the use of the ZIP(E)-Model mandatory to consider energy-constant load characteristics. The effects of different switching times of the supply voltage on a low-voltage grid with DG penetration are formulated as loss functions and minimized by means of particle swarm optimization in a parallel computing process. Optimal switching times considering their beneficial effect on peak load, energy consumption and system losses are shown and discussed.

Author(s):

Leschek Kopczynski    
University of Applied Sciences Düsseldorf
Germany

Michael Schallenburger    
University of Applied Sciences Düsseldorf
Germany

Philipp Huppertz    
University of Applied Sciences Düsseldorf
Germany

Roland Zeise    
University of Applied Sciences Düsseldorf
Germany

 

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