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Co-Simulation for the Evaluation of IEC 61850 based Protection Schemes

The paper describes a dedicated co-simulation architecture to combine power system (PS) simulation and information communication technology (ICT) simulation for assessing new protection schemes fully compliant with the IEC 61850 standard.
Nowadays, beyond the traditional considerations, the design of the new protection schemes must address the station and process bus communication networks, in accordance to the communication system requirements part of the IEC 61850 standard [1]. These requirements include component failure conditions, redundancy design, recovery times and message transfer times. As the protection schemes performance is dependent on the performance of the process bus Local Area Network, the design process requires the combination of different studies, which may include simulation and real time testing using “system in the loop” techniques.
The simulation of the operation of protection schemes may be achieved either by using a single simulation environment [2] (integrated simulation) or by conducting simulations in different environments [3, 4] through a joint and synchronized simulation process (co-simulation). The co-simulation solution benefits from using the most appropriate models and solvers from different simulation environments and, therefore, reduces the cost and time required for model development and validation.
Simulating the operation of IEC 61850 protection schemes and the supporting process bus network requires the simultaneous simulation and interaction of three domains: the PS domain, the ICT domain and the Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) domain. The different nature of the two simulators as regards simulation time, the PS simulator being time driven while the ICT simulator being event driven, required the development of a specific coordination process, which takes advantage of the time delay consumed in the IED communication board to reduce the frequency of interchanging data between simulators.
The correct interaction of the three domains has been validated by an application scenario in which the operation of a simple substation protection scheme is modelled under a power system fault and a breaker failure event. Simulation results are presented from the power system perspective (voltages and currents oscillography) and from the ICT system perspective (sequence diagrams).
The simulation results obtained are able to show correctly the sequence of communication messages exchanged between devices during a power system fault, and thus, they are useful to analyse in detail the behaviour of the protection scheme under different operating conditions.
The combination of a PS simulator and an ICT simulator brings the advantage of achieving a very accurate model of the power system and the ICT system at the same time. Additionally, it becomes a straightforward design process to develop protection algorithms and schemes in the power system simulation environment as well as the development of communication architectures over standardized protocols in the ICT simulation. The level of detail put in either of the developed models can easily be chosen according to the simulation requirements.
Index Terms— Power system simulation, ICT simulation, co-simulation, protection system, IEC 61850.
REFERENCES
[1] Communication networks and systems for power utility automation – IEC 61850 Part 7-1: Basic communication structure – Principles and models, 2011.
[2] T.S. Sidhu, S. Injeti, M. G. Kanabar and P. P. Parikh, "Packet Scheduling of GOOSE Messages in IEC 61850 based Substation Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)", in IEEE PES General Meeting, Minneapolis, 2010.
[3] K. Mets, J.A. Ojea and C. Develder, “Combining power and communication network simulation for cost-effective smart grid analysis”, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 16, no. 3, pp 1771 – 1796, March 2014.
[4] C. Rehtanz and X. Guillaud. “Real-Time and Co-Simulations for the Development of Power System Monitoring, Control and Protection”, in 19th Power System Computation Conference, Genova Italy, July 2016.

Author(s):

André dos Santos    
R&D Nester
Portugal

Bruno Soares    
R&D Nester
Portugal

Fan Chen    
R&D Nester
Portugal

Martijn Kuipers    
INOV
Portugal

Sérgio Sabino    
INOV
Portugal

António Grilo    
INESC-ID
Portugal

Paulo Pereira    
INESC-ID
Portugal

Mário Nunes    
INESC-ID
Portugal

Augusto Casaca    
INESC-ID
Portugal

 

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